Inflammation of uveal tissue is uveitis. This can be infective, inflammatory or autoimmune. This can be iritis, iridocyclitis, pars planitis, panuveitis, retinitis or choroiditis. Sometimes it is associated with systemic conditions like joint or skin disorders .Uveitis usually presents with eye pain, redness and photophobia. In severe stages visual loss can occur. Complete systemic work up is required in many patients to detect the underlying pathology.
Tumours can occur in the uveal tissue. This can appear as mass lesion, recurrent uveitis or inflammation. Imaging is done to localize the lesion and the treatment is given accordingly.
Trauma can present with foreign body in the uveal tissue. Special investigations like ultrasound biomicroscopy or anterior segment OCT may be required for localization.
Uveal cyst is also seen in clinical practice. Imaging like UBM or OCT is done and cyst removal is performed after investigations.
BASELINE: This includes the routine tests like blood hemogram and urine tests which shows the current systemic condition of the patient. There are some tests like rheumatoid factor or Mantoux test which is also a baseline test for all uveitis patients.
SPECIAL TESTS: Serological evaluation for infective etiology (IgG and IgM) is done. Autoantibodies for autoimmune diseases and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial or viral pathology are also tested.
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES In some cases, diagnostic tap of aqueous fluid or vitreous is taken for confirmation.
OCULAR EXAMNIATIONS Complete eye examination is done for all patients with uveitis. Imaging like ultrasound biomicroscopy gives the exact location of lesion and severity. Anterior segment OCT is also useful in some cases.
Medical treatment Medical management is decided depending upon the severity of the condition.
Surgical treatment Vitrectomy, membranectomy, intravitreal drug administration, complicated cataract extraction and vitreous biopsy are the common surgical interventions done.